Mount Fortress, built in 1617-1926, occupies a hilltop to the east of the ruins of St. Paul’s. It was constructed by the Jesuits as part of a complex which also included the college and church of St. Paul’s.
The four corners of the fortress protrude to form bulwarks. The north-eastern, south-eastern and south-western walls are built on 3.7 metre wide granite bases. The walls, 9 metres high narrowing upwards to 2.7 metres wide at the top, are made of solid rammed earth, further strengthened by a thick stucco of ground oyster shells. The parapet sections were crenulated for the installation of 32 cannons and the two corners of the south-east wall have watchtowers. The main entrance of the fortress is located on the southeast wall with some simple rooms behind the gate for military purposes. Access to the fortress is made through a short winding path leading to a spacious platform at the top.
The canons were used only once, when the Dutch invaded Macau in 1622. This was also the first residence of the governors of Macau. Over the following decades trees grew from the platform of the fort, which was transformed into a public park where residents and visitors came to enjoy the views. The only building was an office of the Meteorological Department until 1998 when the three-level Macau Museum, focusing on the history of Macau, was built into the fortress hill.

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